Ciguatera is a widespread food-borne disease. It is a form of ichtyosarcotoxism whereby humans are poisoned by eating fish intoxicated with toxins generated by micro-algae at the base of the food chain.
The main algae involved in the production of toxins is the dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus (Adachi and Fukyo, 1979) although other species are also presumed to be associated with the disease but their role is more circumstantial.  (Gramade and Dickey,  1990; Bomber, 1991)





Dinoflagellates and toxins


Table of the toxins produced by the different dinoflagellate species. 
Species  Compound  Action of toxin 
 G.toxicus  maitotoxin  
 C.monotis  unnamed  hemolytic
 O.lenticularis  ostreotoxin  neurotoxin
 O.heptagona  unknown  -
 O.ovata  unknown  hemolytic
 O.siamensis  unknown  hemolytic
 O.mascarenensis  maitotoxin   neurotoxin
 P.concavum  okadaic acid  diarrhetic
 P.lima   okadaic acid   diarrhetic
 P.mexicanum   fast acting toxin   hemolytic 
 P.hoffmanium  okadaic acid  diarrhetic 




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